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Threat ABCs

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Friday, November 17, 2023

What threats do users risk encountering on the Internet daily? We have compiled for you a brief ABC of the main threats according to the Dr.Web classification system. A complete list with examples of the threats that have been detected can be found on our site.

B — blocker

This is a trojan. An attacker blocks access to a device and demands a ransom for its restoration.

It can be distributed through spam mailings, advertising networks, and under the guise of useful applications.

D — DDoS attack

A DDoS attack makes network devices, servers or web resources inaccessible by overloading them with numerous requests. Restoring access requires time and money. Attacks are usually carried out with the help of malicious programs — trojans, worms, and some others.

Attacks are carried out from infected computers or smart devices. There are also special hacker programs, including for mobile gadgets.

E — encryption ransomware

This is a trojan. Cybercriminals use them to encrypt data and demand a ransom for their recovery. By blocking the ability to read files, encryption ransomware can deprive the user of valuable data and even paralyse the work of an entire company.

Encryption ransomware gets onto a device when a user clicks on a malicious link or through a software vulnerability.

E — exploit

An exploit uses vulnerabilities in operating systems or in certain applications to carry out an attack. Using an exploit, an attacker gains access to a specific application or to the entire OS of an attacked device.

Exploits can also be hidden on websites, in PDF files, and in Microsoft Office documents.

M — macro virus

It infects MS PowerPoint, MS Word, MS Excel, MS Access documents and templates and StarOffice files. In the future, the package will access the infected template and, due to this, it will infect edited or new documents.

P — phishing

Phishing is a type of Internet fraud, an attempt to get a user's personal data through deceptive means. For example, passwords, credit card information, bank account information, and other sensitive information.

Phishing scams include fake webpages, fraudulent documents, emails, and instant messages containing links to fraudulent sites.

S — spyware

A category of malware that is used for surveillance. This software is used to obtain the personal data of victims and criminal earnings.

Most often, surveillance is carried out using a webcam and a microphone. Also, attackers have in their arsenal the ability to intercept keystrokes, create screenshots, steal cookies, and collect information about bookmarks and browser history. Mobile spyware also intercepts SMS messages and collects location and call data.

Т —  trojan

Trojans steal users' personal information, block computers, and allow infected devices to be controlled remotely and any action to be performed on them — even cryptocurrency mining.

Users risk downloading them under the guise of a useful program — for example, by following a link sent from a dubious source.

U — unwanted or potentially dangerous software

These programs pose a potential danger and can be unwanted if they are installed without the user's permission or by deception. They display unsolicited ads and confusing notifications, scare users with unexpected pop-ups, change system settings, and can download trojans.

Such programs can get onto computers from torrent trackers, or they can be downloaded from websites under the guise of useful software. They can also be built into software bundles.

V — virus

This is a malicious program that infects executable files of other applications or files of other types. A virus is a parasite; it needs a victim — a program or another file. Most often, a virus infects files, but sometimes it overwrites or hides them.

This leads to the disruption of the system and the installed programs. It gets onto a device from emails, messages from instant messengers or SMS messages, with a downloaded program or application, from a malicious site or via removable media.

W —  worm

The functionality of a worm can be very broad and combine several features. Its main characteristic is self-reproduction by surfing through the network, mail and removable media, and infecting other devices. If unclosed vulnerabilities are present, a worm can infect devices over the network directly.

The Anti-virus Times recommends

  • Install Dr.Web Security Space — it will reliably protect your system from cyber threats.
  • Be vigilant: never install programs from dubious sources or follow links with "tempting" offers.

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